Discover Loch Fleet in the Scottish Highlands

Written by Chris Thornton | 4th of April 2023
Loch Fleet

Loch Fleet is a picturesque tidal sea lagoon located along the eastern coast of Sutherland in the Scottish Highlands. The loch spans approximately 6.5 kilometres and is characterized by its narrow entrance, sheltered waters, and diverse ecosystems. The area around Loch Fleet boasts a rich tapestry of habitats, including sand dunes, mudflats, salt marshes, and coastal woodlands, making it a haven for a wide array of flora and fauna.

As one of Scotland's hidden gems, Loch Fleet offers visitors the chance to immerse themselves in the serene natural beauty of the Highlands and explore a unique and vital ecosystem.

My wife and I have been visiting Loch Fleet for almost 20 years; the coastal drive to Golspie takes in the loch, and you can see a great deal of wildlife at the many stopping places. Skelbo Castle's spectre overlooks the loch, adding additional interest.

Loch Fleet National Nature Reserve. Scottish Wildlife Trust.
An aerial view of the loch and forested areas.

Where is Loch Fleet?

Loch Fleet is situated between the towns of Dornoch and Golspie in the northeastern part of the Scottish Highlands. This relatively untouched area of Scotland is famed for its dramatic landscapes, abundant wildlife, and rich cultural heritage.

The loch's location within the Highlands contributes to its importance as a natural habitat and a site of scientific interest. Being one of the region's last remaining undisturbed coastal habitats, Loch Fleet is a vital refuge for many plant and animal species and offers an invaluable opportunity for locals and tourists to experience the unique beauty of the Scottish Highlands.

How to get to Loch Fleet

The reserve is situated on the eastern side of the A9 in Sutherland, nestled between the towns of Dornoch and Golspie.

By car:

To visit Littleferry and Balblair woods, take the golf course road exit from the A9 in Golspie. The road meanders through the picturesque Balblair woods, where a car park on the left offers access to the beautiful Balblair woodland trail through pine woods.

Continuing southward towards Littleferry, you'll find a second car park on the left. From here, you can walk to the charming village of Littleferry or explore the nearby dunes and pristine beaches.

The closest postcode is KW10 6TD, with the grid reference being NH 806957.

For those looking to visit the reserve's south shore, turn off the A9 and follow the brown tourist signs for Visit Embo and Dornoch if approaching from the north. If coming from the south, take the scenic minor road through Skelbo, leading to the shore. A public car park awaits you at the shore. Although there are no designated paths on this side of the reserve, the area offers spectacular views of the tidal basin, providing excellent opportunities to observe birds and seals.

The nearest postcode for the south shore is IV25 3QG, with the grid reference being NH 793952.

By public transport:

The closest bus stop is located in the quaint village of Golspie, about 3 kilometres from the reserve.

Train services connect Inverness and Golspie ( Inverness to Wick line), 3 kilometres from the reserve.

For those who prefer cycling, there is a dedicated cycle path that extends from the village centre to Balblair woods.

Loch Fleet NNR, rare pinewood plants
Looking to the mouth of the Loch and over to Balblair Woods.

History of Loch Fleet

Loch Fleet formed around 10,000 years ago as a result of post-glacial processes. After the last Ice Age, the melting of glaciers led to rising sea levels, which flooded the lower-lying areas along the coastline, creating the sea lagoon we see today. The loch's unique geological features can be traced back to the different rock formations in the area, including sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone, which contribute to the diverse landscapes within and around the loch.

Over time, the interplay of natural forces such as tidal currents, erosion, and sedimentation has helped shape the dynamic ecosystems around Loch Fleet. The loch's shallow waters, narrow entrance, and extensive mudflats have given rise to a rich variety of habitats, making it a crucial site for both local and migratory species. This combination of geological history and ecological diversity underscores the importance of Loch Fleet as a natural wonder within the Scottish Highlands.

Battle of Littleferry

A few days before the infamous Battle of Culloden in 1746, the Battle of Littleferry took place. Descending from the hills above Golspie, the Sutherland militia ambushed a group of approximately 500 men led by the Earl of Cromarty.

Cornered on the Littleferry peninsula, situated on the northeastern edge of the loch, Cromarty's men were either slain, captured, or met their fate in the loch's depths.

The Mound Causeway

The construction of the Mound causeway, a masterpiece envisioned by Thomas Telford and built between 1814 and 1818, altered the loch's landscape as it carried what is now known as the A9 road. Spanning nearly 1 km in length, the causeway serves as a tidal barrier, halting the sea approximately 2.5 km before its former tidal limit. Integrated sluices within the causeway facilitate the migration of salmon and sea trout to their upstream spawning grounds while also ensuring the River Fleet's outflow.

A9 bridge at Loch Fleet. Large tidal basin, one flowered wintergreen.
The modern bridge at the end of the Mound Causeway (A9).

Flora and Fauna

The varied ecosystems found within and around Loch Fleet contribute to its status as a biodiversity hotspot. The loch is characterized by sheltered, shallow waters and extensive mudflats, which create the ideal conditions for many marine organisms. Along the shoreline, visitors can find sand dunes and salt marshes that support an array of specialized plant species adapted to the saline environment.

Moving further inland, coastal woodlands and heathlands offer another distinct habitat teeming with life. These diverse ecosystems provide vital nesting, breeding, and feeding grounds for countless bird, mammal, and plant species, many of which are rare or endangered. The intricate web of interconnected habitats found in the Loch Fleet area not only supports a wide variety of life but also plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall ecological balance of the region.


Loch Fleet and its surrounding habitats are home to a diverse range of plant species, some rare or endemic to the region. The dunes along the shoreline harbour marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) play a vital role in stabilizing the dunes by trapping windblown sand. In the salt marshes, one can find salt-tolerant plant species such as sea aster (Tripolium pannonicum), sea plantain (Plantago maritima), and glasswort (Salicornia europaea), which thrive in the saline environment.

The coastal woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula spp.), providing a dense canopy for a rich understory of ferns, mosses, and flowering plants. The heathlands, on the other hand, showcase a variety of heather species (Calluna vulgaris and Erica spp.), as well as gorse (Ulex europaeus) and cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix). These varied plant communities contribute to the rich tapestry of habitats that make Loch Fleet a unique and vital refuge for numerous animal species.

Loch Fleet Lamb
A cute lamb on the shores of Loch Fleet.

Migratory and resident bird species

Loch Fleet is a haven for bird enthusiasts, attracting a diverse range of both migratory and resident bird species. The loch's unique habitats and abundant food supply make it an ideal location for nesting, breeding, and overwintering for many avian species.

Some of the most iconic migratory bird species found at Loch Fleet include ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) which return to the area each spring to breed and hunt on the River Fleet, as well as bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica) and knots (Calidris canutus), which visit the mudflats during their long migrations between the Arctic and Africa. In the winter months, thousands of wading birds like dunlins (Calidris alpina), oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus), and redshanks (Tringa totanus) flock to the loch to feed on the abundant invertebrates found in the mudflats.

Resident bird species are also well-represented at Loch Fleet, with common sightings of species such as the European eider (Somateria mollissima), common tern (Sterna hirundo), and various species of gulls. The surrounding woodlands and heathlands provide essential habitats for iconic species such as:

  • Red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica)

  • Scottish crossbill (Loxia scotica)

  • Black-throated diver (Gavia arctica)

  • Greylag geese (Anser anser)

  • Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

This remarkable diversity of birdlife makes Loch Fleet a popular destination for birdwatchers and wildlife enthusiasts and highlights the importance of preserving and protecting these vital ecosystems.

Loch Fleet from the south shore. Limited bus journeys are available.
Loch Fleet has stunning natural beauty.

Information panels on Loch Fleet seals.
One of the information panels on the south shore.

Aquatic Life

In addition to its rich birdlife, Loch Fleet also supports a variety of aquatic species that thrive in its sheltered waters and diverse habitats. The loch's mudflats are teeming with invertebrates such as lugworms, cockles, and mussels, which serve as essential food sources for fish and bird species.

The loch is home to an array of fish species, including:

  • Flounder (Platichthys flesus)

  • Sea trout (Salmo trutta)

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) navigate the tidal currents to spawn in the nearby rivers. These fish, in turn, attract predators like otters (Lutra lutra) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that can often be spotted along the shoreline or in the loch's calm waters.

Grey Seals

Grey seals and harbour seals are a particularly notable feature of Loch Fleet, with a small colony taking advantage of the loch's shelter and abundant food supply. During the autumn months, visitors may even glimpse seal pups on the nearby sandbank at low tide. The presence of these charismatic marine mammals highlights the ecological significance of Loch Fleet and underscores the need for continued conservation efforts to ensure the health and survival of these unique ecosystems.

Seals at Loch Fleet.
Seals basking on the sandy flats at Loch Fleet.

Designation as a National Nature Reserve (NNR) and Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

In recognition of its exceptional ecological value, Loch Fleet has been designated a National Nature Reserve (NNR) and a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). These designations help to safeguard the area's diverse habitats and species and ensure their long-term survival.

As a National Nature Reserve, Loch Fleet is managed to primarily conserve its habitats and species while promoting opportunities for public enjoyment, education, and scientific research. The NNR status ensures that land use and recreational activities within the reserve are carefully managed to minimize disturbance and maintain the area's ecological integrity.

The Site of Special Scientific Interest designation highlights the national importance of Loch Fleet's habitats and species and its geological features. This status provides additional legal protection, ensuring that any activities or developments within the site are subject to strict scrutiny and regulation to avoid adverse impacts on the area's natural assets.

These designations play a crucial role in safeguarding Loch Fleet's unique ecosystems, contributing to the overall health and resilience of the Scottish Highlands' natural environment.

NatureScot is the agency currently in charge of Loch Fleet:

Reserve manager: Adam Rose

Address: NatureScot, The Links, Golspie Business Park, Golspie, KW10 6UB

Telephone: 01463 701608

Duke of Sutherland statue
The much maligned Duke of Sutherland statue on Ben Bhraggie.

Visitor centres and local attractions

Although Loch Fleet does not have a dedicated visitor centre, nearby towns such as Dornoch and Golspie offer various amenities and attractions for visitors. Both towns have information centres where tourists can gather information about the region, including maps, brochures, and details about guided tours.

Some noteworthy attractions in the area include:

  1. Dornoch Cathedral: A beautiful 13th-century cathedral in the heart of Dornoch, rich in history and architectural significance.

  2. Dunrobin Castle: A majestic castle dating back to the early 1300s, featuring stunning gardens and hosting falconry displays, located just north of Golspie.

  3. Big Burn Walk: A walk through a picturesque valley with bridges and a spectacular waterfall not far from Dunrobin Castle and Golspie.

  4. Skelbo Castle: This decaying old ruin exists on the south shore of Loch Fleet; it's a little hard to get to and in poor condition, but a fascinating castle nonetheless.

  5. Dornoch Beach: A pristine, award-winning sandy beach ideal for family outings, picnics, and nature walks, offering views of the Dornoch Firth and the surrounding coastline.

  6. Historylinks Museum: A local museum that showcases the history, culture, and heritage of Dornoch, Golspie and the surrounding area, offering a fascinating insight into the region's past.

In addition to these attractions, there are numerous local shops, cafes, and restaurants where visitors can experience the unique flavours and crafts of the Scottish Highlands. My wife and I highly recommend Sandstone Cafe in Dornoch, just a stone's throw from the cathedral.

These local establishments provide an opportunity to immerse oneself in the local culture and contribute to the sustainability of the region's economy and way of life.

Skelbo Castle on Loch Fleet.
Skelbo Castle overlooking Loch Fleet.

Key information on Loch Fleet

  • Located on the east coast of Sutherland in the Scottish Highlands.

  • It formed 10,000 years ago due to post-glacial processes.

  • Hosts a variety of habitats, including sand dunes, mudflats, salt marshes, coastal woodlands, and heathlands.

  • Seals, otters and osprey make their home in Loch Fleet.

  • Designated as a National Nature Reserve (NNR) in 1998 and a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in 1975.

  • The towns of Dornoch and Golspie offer various amenities and attractions.

  • Car parks are available on the south side of the loch, as well as the far side of the loch at Balblair Wood and Littleferry. Picnic tables are available in some car parks.


In conclusion, Loch Fleet is a hidden gem nestled within the stunning landscape of the Scottish Highlands. This tidal sea lagoon is a picturesque destination and a vital refuge for a diverse array of flora and fauna.

All information was correct at the time of writing, please check things like entry costs and opening times before you arrive.

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